types of Learning Disorders and management

Learning Disorders

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Introduction. 1

Types of learning disorders. 1

dyslexia. 2

dyscalculia. 2

dysgraphia. 3

Dyspraxia. 3

Aphasia/ dysphasia. 3

Signs and symptoms of learning disorders. 4

Diagnosis and testing. 5

Conclusion. 6




Do you have a child who struggles with school? Dothey dread reading out loud, writing essays or tackling mathproblems? Well, every child might have trouble with their homework one time or another but if there is a certain area of learning that appears to e consistently problematic then it might be an indication of a learning disorder. Once one understands all they can about learning disorders they can ensure that their child gets the right help so that they can overcome some of the challenges in class and succeed in life. The paper will look at some of the learning disorders that are known, some of the signs and symptoms of learning disorders that parents and teachers should look out for the process of diagnosis and testing for learning disorders and finally getting help for children that have learning disorders.

Types of learning disorders

Learningdisorders is a term used to describe a wide range of learning problems .learning disorders are not a problem with intelligence or motivation children who have learning disorders are not lazy and neither are they dumb. As a matter of fact most of them are equally smart like everyoneelse. The only difference which they have is that their brain is wired in a different way. It is this difference that affects how they receive and process information. Learning disorders affect how people understand, remember and respond to new information. Simply put we can say that adults or children, who have learning disorders see, hear, understand things in a different way. This leads to trouble when it comes to learning new information and skills and putting them into meaningful use. Those with learning disorders might have problems with listening and paying attention, reasoning, speaking, reading or writing or doing math (Gina,Melinda ,& Jeanne,2013)

The learning disorders are often grouped by school-area skill set. If a child is going to school the types of learning disorders are most noted revolve around reading, writing and math.


This is a learning disorder when it comes to reading. There are two main learning disorders when it comes to reading. Thebasic reading problems are usually found when a child finds it difficult to understand the relationship between letters, words and sounds. The problem of reading comprehension occurs when a child is unable to rasp meaning of phrases, words or paragraphs. The signs of a reading problem or difficulty include having problem with word and letter recognition, understanding ideas and words, readingfluency and speed and general skills in vocabulary (Gina,Melinda ,& Jeanne,2013).


Learning disorders on mathhave a variation depending on the strengths and weaknesses of a child. Theability of a child to do math is affected in a different way by their language learning disability,visual disorders or difficulties in memory, sequencing and organization. Children with math based learning disorders often struggle with the organization and memorization of numbers. Such children might also have difficulty or trouble with principles of counting or they might even find it difficult to tell time.




These are learning disorders that are associated with writing. This can involve physical act of writing or the mental activity of comprehension and synthesis of information. The basic writing disorder refers to a physical difficulty when it comes to the formation of words and letters. Expressive writing disability is an indication of a struggle of organization of thoughts that are put on paper. Symptoms of written language learning disability revolves around writing which include problems with neatness and consistency when it comes to writing, accurate copying of letters and words, consistency in spelling and writing coherence and organization(Gina,Melinda ,& Jeanne,2013)

Reading, writing and math are not the only skills which are affected by learning disorders. There are other learning disorders which involve difficulties with motor skills  i.e. coordination and movement, understanding of language when spoken .distinguishing of sound and the interpretation of visual information.


These are learning disorders of motor skills and are problems associated with coordination and movement either fine motor or gross motor. Motor disabilities are termed as output activities since they relate to the output of information from the brain. So that one can be ale to write, jump or run the brain should e bale to communicate with the necessary limbs so that the action can be completed. A sign that a child might be having motor coordination disability includes problems with their physical abilities which require hand –eye coordination such as holding of a pencil.


These are learning disorders when it comes to language. These involve the ability of understanding or production of spoken language.language is termed as an output activity since there is organization of thoughts in the brain required and use of right words in giving a verbal explanation of something or communication with someone. Signs that indicate language based learning disorders include problems with verbal language skills such as ability of retelling stories and fluency when it comes to speech and at the same time understanding the meaning of words or parts of directions or speech.

Signs and symptoms of learning disorders

Even though learning disorders occur when a child is of very young age, they are usually recognized till a child attains the school going age. Learning disorders are different from one child to another. While a child can be struggling with reading and spelling another one might be loving books but they do not understand math. There are also other children who find it difficult to understand what other people are saying or they cannot communicate aloud. These learning disorders are many and different but they are all learning disorders.

Identifying learning disorders is not easy since there are very many variations .there is no single or specific symptom or profile that can e used to prove a disorder. However there are some warning signs that are more common than others when a child is at a certain age. If one is aware of  some of these warning signs than then they will have a high chance of catching learning disorder early and go ahead and take steps that will get help for the child.

There are some signs and symptoms for preschool children that can be an indicator of learning disorders. These include problem with pronunciation of words, trouble with finding a word right, difficulty in rhyming, trouble in learning the alphabet, shapes, colors,days of the week, numbers. a difficulty in controlling pencils, crayons or coloring within the lines ,trouble with zippers,buttons,tying shoe laces and so on.

There are also some signs and symptoms for children aged between 5 and 9 years. These include having trouble with connection between letters and sounds, confusionofbasic words when they are reading, slow when it comes to learning new skills, trouble when it comes to learning new concepts in ,math,difficulty in telling time and remembering sequences, constantly misspelling words and so on(MedlinePlus ,2013).

for those who are between 10 and 13 years the signs and symptoms include having difficulty in reading or solving math problems, problems with tests that are open ended, disliking writing and reading, spelling of a similar word differently if it appears on the same document, having a poor handwriting, poor organizational skills and so on.

Parents are advised to ensure that they pay attention to developmental milestones so that they can e able to identify any learning disorders that might be present. When parent detect developmental differences early it could ea indication of learning disabilities and if the problemsare spotted early it becomes easy to correct them.


Diagnosis and testing

Diagnosis of learning disorders is a process that involves testing, taking history and being observed by specialists who are trained. The availability of  a reputable referral is of great importance .the process should begin by going to the child’s school, if they are not in a position to offer any assistance then one can seek help from family, friends, doctor or insurance company all who have dealt with issue of learning disorders. In some instances several professionals coordinate their services as a team so that an accurate diagnosis can be given. The specialist might ask for a little input from the child teachers .recommendations are made for speech language therapy or special education within the school system (KidsHealth ,2013).


It is often something tough to parents to face the possibility of their child having a learningdisorder. Thereis no parent who wants to see their child suffering. Parents often wonder what these abilities would mean for the future of their child or even worry of how the child will make it through school. Parents are often concerned that by paying attention to the learning disorder in a child might lead to labeling of the child as slow or the teachers might end up assigning tasks that are less challenging to them.

The most important thing to note is that most of the children with learning disorders are just equally smart like anyone else. They only need to be taught in ways tailored to their unique styles of learning therefore by learning more about learning disorders generally and the specific learning difficulty a child has will go a long way in ensuring that the child succeeds in school and beyond.


Gina M.A., Melinda ,M.A., &Jeanne, S. (2013).Learning Disabilities &Disorders. Retrieved October 9, 2013 from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm

the national centre for learning disabilities.(2013).Learning disabilities. Retrieved October 9,2013 from http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disailities/what-is-Id/what-are-learning-disabilities

KidsHealth.(2013).Learning Disabilities. Retrieved October 9,2013 from http://m.kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/learning/learning_disabilities.html

MedlinePlus.(2013).learning disorders. Retrieved October 9,2013 from





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